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Photo Gyan

What is a "Three Point Lighting"?

Three-point lighting is a standard method used in visual media such as theatre, videofilmstill photography and computer-generated imagery.[1] By using three separate positions, the photographer can illuminate the shot's subject (such as a person) however desired, while also controlling (or eliminating entirely) the shading and shadows produced by direct lighting.

The key light, as the name suggests, shines directly upon the subject and serves as its principal illuminator; more than anything else, the strength, color and angle of the key determines the shot's overall lighting design.

In indoor shots, the key is commonly a specialized lamp, or a camera's flash. In outdoor daytime shots, the Sun often serves as the key light. In this case, of course, the photographer cannot set the light in the exact position he or she wants, so instead arranges the shot to best capture the sunlight, perhaps after waiting for the sun to position itself just right.

The fill light also shines on the subject, but from a side angle relative to the key and is often placed at a lower position than the key (about at the level of the subject's face). It balances the key by illuminating shaded surfaces, and lessening or eliminating chiaroscuro effects, such as the shadow cast by a person's nose upon the rest of the face. It is usually softer and less bright than the key light (up to half), and more to a flood. Not using a fill at all can result in stark contrasts (due to shadows) across the subject's surface, depending upon the key light's harshness. Sometimes, as in low-key lighting, this is a deliberate effect, but shots intended to look more natural and less stylistic require a fill.

In some situations a photographer can use a reflector (such as a piece of white cardstock mounted off-camera, or even a white-painted wall) as a fill light instead of an actual lamp. Reflecting and redirecting the key light's rays back upon the subject from a different angle can cause a softer, subtler effect than using another lamp.

The back light (a.k.a. the rimhair, or shoulder light) shines on the subject from behind, often (but not necessarily) to one side or the other. It gives the subject a rim of light, serving to separate the subject from the background and highlighting contours.

Back light or rim light is different from a kick in that a kick (or kicker) contributes to a portion of the shading on the visible surface of the subject, while a rim light only creates a thin outline around the subject without necessarily hitting the front (visible) surface of the subject at all.


What are the advantages of learning photography ?

  • Photography is such an Art and Science that it can be taken up by almost anybody. 
  • It is one of the most effective medium of bringing artistic expressions out of different people. 
  • It keeps active a young and old mind alike. 
  • It is a perfect medium of recording visual events or subjects as memories. 

If this medium is so easily available to many specially with the advent of Digitalization of cameras and photography as a whole, then why does one need to Learn from experts in the field?

Photography can be self-taught but the combination of Art, Science and Techniques takes much longer time to grasp in the self-learning process. More often than not Combining the above three factors can be tricky. That is why it helps to learn photography from an expert


Why it is difficult to produce out of focus blur in the back grounds when photographed with a compact digital camera?

All compact cameras have smaller focal lengths; all lenses with smaller focal lengths (not equivalent focal length) have a deeper Depth of field.


What is meant by the term equivalent focal length?

Equivalent focal length is a term usually referred to focal lengths of a full frame 35mm camera as in most 35mm film cameras with a format size of 24 X 36 mm frame and also any modern full frame digital camera, where a normal lens would be 50mm, lesser focal length would go towards wide angle (e.g. 28mm would be a moderate wide angle lens) and longer than 50 mm would be towards Tele lens (e.g. 105 mm would be a moderate tele).

Therefore a normal lens of an APS-C size digital SLR (which majority of digital SLR’s in use are), the normal lens would be 25mm approx. in some of the compact cameras The normal lens would be calculated to 12 to 15mm approx.


What is Depth of field ?

Depth of field is the sharpness or lack of it in the background and foreground of a picture where the main subject focused will be sharp fully. Un sharp background and foreground with the main subject being sharp fully is Less Depth of field and sharper background and foreground keeping the main subject sharp fully is more depth of field.


What are the factors that control The depth of field?

  • The aperture in a lens controls Depth of field i.e. smaller the aperture more the depth of field and larger the aperture lesser the depth of field for a given focal length.
  • The focal length changes Depth of field i.e. longer the focal length – lesser the depth of field and shorter the focal length – more the depth of field for a given aperture.
  • The distance of a subject from the camera changes the Depth of field, i.e. longer the distance from the camera – more the Depth of field and lesser the distance from the camera less Depth of field for a given focal length and aperture.

What is White balance?

White balance normally is referred to different color tone of the light source itself or the reflected light from a colored surface or area illuminating the subject.

For example Light from a setting sun is very Orange/Red, mid day sun very white and under a shadow of a building from the day sun but with a deep blue sky there is a lot of blue hue. Pictures taken under each of the above condition will create a color bias, so to correct these factors in a picture White balance setting is provided in a digital camera.


What are some of the factors that one should look into while composing a frame

While composing a frame look for leading lines, which leads the eyes into the frame


What is exposure in reference to photography

Exposure is one of the most important things to take into account when learning photography. The two main points when talhing about exposure in photography are shutter speed and exposure.

What is composition?

Composition is the structure of a photograph. It’s how you arrange the elements in your image to create the look you want, and it can make or break an image. If you stumble upon an interesting subject — no matter how good the light is, or how unusual the conditions are — you still need to compose the photo well if you want a successful result.

  • Well-known composition technique
  • 1. Rule of Thirds. ... 
  • 2. Centred Composition and Symmetry. ... 
  • 3. Foreground Interest and Depth. ... 
  • 4. Frame Within the Frame. ... 
  • 5. Leading Lines. ... 
  • 6. Diagonals and Triangles. ... 
  • 7. Patterns and Textures. ... 
  • 8. Rule of Odds.






Note : Students should have a digital camera (compact of DSLR), preferably 8 MP or higher.

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